Dental prosthetics is the branch of dentistry that targets the coronary portion of tooth. Through dental prosthetic interventions, dental integrity is obtained using:
– fixed / mobile dentures – devices that replace the crowns of the missing tooth
– dental veneers – a thin but very resistant ceramic coating that is applied over the visible surface of the tooth and are used to correct and / or improve the appearance of the teeth
– dental crowns – a prosthetic work that completely covers an abutment or a tooth with a high degree of coronary destruction, thus managing to save it’s aesthetic as well as it’s function
– inlays – very aesthetic prosthetic works, similar to fillings but are made in the laboratory after impressions
– dental bridges – fixed dental restoration that replace one / more missing teeth; the bridges are anchored on the abutment teeth that delimit the edentulousness.
– prosthetic works on implants – completely restores the coronary portion of a missing tooth, but the support is the dental implant.
Although an essential component, dental prosthetics is not just about aesthetics. A functional reconstruction is mandatory, which means that all oral functions must be analyzed and restored: phonation (sound production), mastication (chewing food) and correct rehabilitation of the occlusion to avoid severe complications (bruxism, pulpal damage due to mechanical trauma, gingival retraction due to trauma, etc.). There is a close interdependence between prosthetics and the other clinical disciplines of dentistry. For a correctly performed prosthetic work, a few steps are required prior to preparation of dental support:
– sanitation of the cavity by professional descaling and brushing
– treatment of all carious processes
– performing endodontic treatments (their necessity is evaluated by the doctor)
– creating space through orthodontic maneuvers in case of migration of neighboring teeth
– evaluation of the mucosal and bone support and the appropriate measures in case of total prostheses
– evaluate the stability and bone integration of the implants before making the prosthesis on the implant
Depending on the materials from which they are made, the works differ in appearance, strength, durability, price. An experienced clinician, knowing the advantages and disadvantages of materials (ceramics, zirconium, metal alloys, composite materials) will assess the clinical situation, masticatory forces and establish, together with the patient, the optimal option.
Dental ceramics: it is a hard and resistant material with a very rich range of shades. It has excellent aesthetic properties being able to imitate the smallest details on the surface of the teeth. He can not but it alone sustains extensive dental work
Zirconium : is an extremely resistant material that has a white color. Can support works extended teeth but has a limited range of colors and therefore can not be used alone in areas where aesthetic demands are high
Metallic alloys: they have a good resistance but the aesthetics are extremely precarious, most often they are use to make the supporting skeleton which is then covered with a material physiognomy.
* All metal works can be performed in the back areas of the oral cavity but their indications they have been restricted lately.
Composite : composite crowns do not last as long as ceramic, zirconium or gold; consequently, they will have to be replaced more often; they usually have a supporting metal skeleton over which the composite will be positioned (often only on the visible outer parts of the crown, and not on the occlusal face where the mastication is performed)
Acrylate : has a low resistance and it’s not very aesthetic, but it is very cheap; it is used mostly for temporary