Periodontology studies the anatomy and physiology of the marginal periodontium, as well as the diseases that affect it and the treatment possibilities.
The masticatory units (teeth) are part of a complex system, in an interdependent relationship: the tooth, the maxillary bone, the marginal periodontium. If any of the three components is affected, the entire system is compromised.
The periodontium is made up of all the tissues that hold and support the teeth in the maxillary bones .
It has a superficial (covering) component – the GUM and a deep (supporting) component – cementum, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone.
The gum is the visible portion of the marginal periodontium and covers the coronary extremity of the alveolar bone. The normal color is light pink – but there are also anatomical variations.
It is divided into 3 areas:
– free gingival margin (the most coronary portion, which surrounds the tooth, situated between the dental papilla)
Normally, the marginal contour is sharp, smooth, without irregularities or depressions.
Normal consistency is looser, slightly depressible.
– interdental papilla (occupies the interdental space, immediately below the contact point of the teeth).
The shape of the dental papilla varies depending on several factors (bone morphology, age, crowding / spacing of teeth, trauma).
– fixed gum (it is located next to the free gingival margin and is firmly adherent to the tooth and bone)
The fixed gum has a firm consistency and is an area of resistance against the retraction and movement of the free gum.
The appearance is that of an “orange peel” due to morphological particularities.
Periodontal ligaments serve to unite the tooth and the bone into a flexible connection. They are attaced to the cementum (hard, mineralized tissue that covers the root of the tooth) and keep it “glued” to the bone.
The periodontium has a very important role in the masticatory process and, therefore, its entire structure is designed to withstand the forces that the food bowl exerts on it. During the mastication process, the gum does not act alone, so it is joined by the tongue, palatal mucosa and teeth.
The food that reaches the oral cavity is oriented from the gum to the tongue, and then directed to the teeth. The gum has pain, pressure and temperature receptors, thus fulfilling the sensitive function but at the same time ensuring the protection of the cementum, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone against aggressive factors. In the early stages of periodontal disease there is inflammation of the gums – gingivitis .
Gingivitis is manifested by changing the consistency of the gum – it becomes soft and the color changes to purplish red. Also, the interdental papillae become inflamed, painful, itchy and detach from the teeth and the gums bleed when brushing. Gradually the disease evolves towards deeper structures: periodontitis – the gum begins to withdraw from the teeth (the alveolar bone retracts with it) and periodontal pockets appear (“pockets” formed between bone and tooth in which bacteria accumulate, tartar, fragments of necrotic bone, etc. .).
In very advanced stages the teeth are expelled from the dental alveoli – tooth loss.
These diseases are most often of bacterial etiology, being caused by the biofilm on the dental surface but are maintained by many favorable factors: tartar, dental caries , incorrectly performed prosthetic works, certain physiological conditions (pregnancy, menstruation, puberty, menopause), smoking, certain medications or general conditions (diabetes, anemia, immunodeficiency disorders, etc.).
For the management of periodontal disease, it is necessary to visit the dentist’s office once every 6 months / once a year (according to the doctor’s recommendation) to perform the professional
teeth cleaning session. It is proven that old plaque cannot be removed by normal brushing, performed by the patient at home.
The Diadent Clinic is equipped with modern ultrasonic descaling devices, created and adapted to remove plaque without damaging the tooth enamel.
The second stage of descaling consists of professional brushing, made with rotating brushes and professional abrasive paste.
The last step is done with the the AIRFLOW device – it releases a jet of air, water, baking soda powder and completely removes tooth stains (coffee, red wine, tobacco, chromogenic bacteria, etc.).
The jet of the airflow system is able to enter the smallest interdental spaces, thus having an effective action on all surfaces of the tooth. Due to the properties of baking soda, it is at the same time disinfecting the tissues and lightly whitening the teeth, but without affecting the enamel.
Besides the very important functional component, the Periodontology specialty also considers the AESTHETIC aspect of the periodontium. With the help of laser technologies, modern dentistry offers minimally invasive gingival reshaping methods with very fast recovery and almost no pain.
The dental laser has an extremely thin tip for the accuracy of the work and through the red laser light the instant cauterization of the tissues is achieved, bleeding and contamination with pathogens are eliminated.
In the advanced stages of periodontal disease, it is possible that periodontal surgery is necessary. Flap surgery is a surgical solution characterized by opening an access flap, beyond the mucogingival line, to provide access to the tooth roots in order to remove the subgingival tartar and to smooth the surface of the root. The purpose of this treatment is to create a greater opening to the roots of the teeth and the bone around them, to allow a deeper cleaning. During the flap operation, the doctor has direct access to the areas he sanitizes, being possible at the same time the repositioning of the gum to restore the aesthetic component.
The Diadent Clinic provides trained and experienced specialists who can correctly diagnose the degree of periodontal damage and propose a correct treatment plan, adapted to each clinical situation. Although it is a degenerative disease, periodontitis can be reversible if diagnosed and treated early .